The many internal and external conflicts that british north america faced since 1760

There had already been a King George's War in the s during the reign of King George IIso British colonists named this conflict after their opponents, and it became known as the French and Indian War.

The many internal and external conflicts that british north america faced since 1760

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Empress Maria Theresa of Austria had signed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in in order to gain time to rebuild her military forces and forge new alliances.

The War of the Austrian Succession had seen the belligerents aligned on a time-honoured basis. Prussiathe leading anti-Austrian state in Germany, had been supported by France.

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Neither group, however, found much reason to be satisfied with its partnership: British subsidies to Austria produced nothing of much help to the British, while the British military effort had not saved Silesia for Austria.

Prussia, having secured Silesia, came to terms with Austria in disregard of French interests. Even so, France concluded a defensive alliance with Prussia inand the maintenance of the Anglo-Austrian alignment after was deemed essential by the Duke of NewcastleBritish secretary of state in the ministry of his brother Henry Pelham.

The collapse of that system and the aligning of France with Austria and of Great Britain with Prussia constituted what is known as the " diplomatic revolution " or the "reversal of alliances. On 2 JuneAustria and Russia concluded a defensive alliance that covered their own territory and Poland against attack by Prussia or the Ottoman Empire.

Their real desire, however, was to destroy Frederick's power altogether, reducing his sway to his electorate of Brandenburg and giving East Prussia to Poland, an exchange that would be accompanied by the cession of the Polish Duchy of Courland to Russia. Alexey Bestuzhev-Ryumingrand chancellor of Russia under Empress Elizabethwas hostile to both France and Prussia, but he could not persuade Austrian statesman Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz to commit to offensive designs against Prussia so long as Prussia was able to rely on French support.

Europe in the years after the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in The Hanoverian king George II of Great Britain was passionately devoted to his family's continental holdings, but his commitments in Germany were counterbalanced by the demands of the British colonies overseas. If war against France for colonial expansion was to be resumed, then Hanover had to be secured against Franco-Prussian attack.

France was very much interested in colonial expansion and was willing to exploit the vulnerability of Hanover in war against Great Britain, but it had no desire to divert forces to central Europe for Prussia's interest. French policy was, moreover, complicated by the existence of the Secret du Roi —a system of private diplomacy conducted by King Louis XV.

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Unbeknownst to his foreign minister, Louis had established a network of agents throughout Europe with the goal of pursuing personal political objectives that were often at odds with France's publicly stated policies. Frederick saw Saxony and Polish west Prussia as potential fields for expansion but could not expect French support if he started an aggressive war for them.

If he joined the French against the British in the hope of annexing Hanover, he might fall victim to an Austro-Russian attack. Neither state could pose as a great power.

Saxony was merely a buffer between Prussia and Austrian Bohemiawhereas Poland, despite its union with the ancient lands of Lithuania, was prey to pro-French and pro-Russian factions.

A Prussian scheme for compensating Frederick Augustus with Bohemia in exchange for Saxony obviously presupposed further spoliation of Austria. Not only that, Britain would soon join the Austro-Russian alliance, but complications arose.

Britain's basic framework for the alliance itself was to protect Hanover's interests against France. At the same time, Kaunitz kept approaching the French in the hope of establishing just such an alliance with Austria.

Not only that, France had no intention to ally with Russia, who, years earlier, had meddled in France's affairs during Austria's succession war. France also saw the dismemberment of Prussia as threatening to the stability of Central Europe. Years later, Kaunitz kept trying to establish France's alliance with Austria.

He tried as hard as he could to avoid Austrian entanglement in Hanover's political affairs, and was even willing to trade Austrian Netherlands for France's aid in recapturing Silesia. Frustrated by this decision and by the Dutch Republic 's insistence on neutrality, Britain soon turned to Russia.

On 30 SeptemberBritain pledged financial aid to Russia in order to station 50, troops on the Livonian-Lithuanian border, so they could defend Britain's interests in Hanover immediately. Besthuzev, assuming the preparation was directed against Prussia, was more than happy to obey the request of the British.

Unbeknownst to the other powers, King George II also made overtures to the Prussian king, Frederick, who, fearing the Austro-Russian intentions, was also desirous of a rapprochement with Britain.

On 16 Januarythe Convention of Westminster was signed, whereby Britain and Prussia promised to aid one another; the parties hoped to achieve lasting peace and stability in Europe. The carefully coded word in the agreement proved no less catalytic for the other European powers.

The results were absolute chaos. Empress Elizabeth of Russia was outraged at the duplicity of Britain's position.

The many internal and external conflicts that british north america faced since 1760

Not only that, but France was enraged, and terrified, by the sudden betrayal of its only ally. Austria, particularly Kaunitz, used this situation to their utmost advantage. Now-isolated France was forced to accede to the Austro-Russian alliance or face ruin.

Thereafter, on 1 Maythe First Treaty of Versailles was signed, in which both nations pledged 24, troops to defend each other in the case of an attack.Road to Revolution I n The Virginia Company of London, an English trading company, planted the first permanent English settlement in North America.

The British and Colonists fought France in North America, but the war was also fought in Europe by only the British. The English were always bartering with Native Americans and trying to get their land.

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Map of the British and French settlements in North America in , before the French and Indian War ( to ), that was part of the Seven Years' War The boundary between British and French possessions in North America was largely undefined in the s. The French and Indian War (–) is the American name for the North American theater of the Seven Years' War.

The war was fought primarily between the colonies of British America and New France, with both sides supported by military units from their parent countries of Great Britain and France, who declared war on each other in The French and Indian War in America, by contrast, was largely concluded in six years from the Battle of Jumonville Glen in to the capture of Montreal in [9] Canadians conflate both the European and American conflicts into the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans).

the British presence in America added to tensions between the colonists and the British, was a constant affront to the colonists sense of independence and a reminder of what they considered British oppression.

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