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Egypt flourished and the Fatimids developed an extensive trade network in both the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Their trade and diplomatic ties extended all the way to China and its Song Dynastywhich eventually determined the economic course of Egypt during the High Middle Ages.
Many traces of Fatimid architecture exist in Cairo today, the most defining examples include the Al Azhar University and the Al Hakim mosque. The Fatimid palace in Cairo had two parts.
The literate theologians of Al-Azhar University generally rejected the version of Islam practiced by illiterate religious preachers and peasants in the countryside. Most upper- and upper-middle-class Muslims believed either that religious expression was a private matter for each individual or that Islam should play a more dominant role in public life.
Islamic religious revival movements, whose appeal cut across class lines, were present in most cities and in many villages. He also made the appointment of the grand sheikh the prerogative of the Egyptian president, just as the appointment of any other state official.
To maintain their influence in the country, the ulama espoused more conservative stances. Afterfor example, many al-Azhar ulama, who had acquiesced to family planning initiatives in the s, openly criticized government efforts at population control.
They remained, nonetheless, comparatively moderate; they were largely loyal to the government and condemned the violence of radical Islamist groups. Outside of the state-mosques are more than 40, independent mosques throughout Egypt.
Some devout Muslims believe that there can be no dichotomy between the sacred and the secular. Even village religious leaders usually have only a rudimentary knowledge of Islam.
Popular religion include a variety of unorthodox practices, such as veneration of saints, recourse to charms and amulets, and belief in the influence of evil spirits.
Predestination plays an important role in popular Islam. Women specially trained by their mothers or other women in zar lore organize the ceremonies.
A zar organizer holds weekly meetings and employs music and dance to induce ecstatic trances in possessed women.
Wealthy women sometimes pay to have private zars conducted in their homes; these zars are more elaborate than public ones, last for several days, and sometimes involve efforts to exorcise spirits. However, while once common, the zar is rarely practiced today, under fire for its perception as a religious heresy.
It has been called the "default setting" of Muslim religious life in Egypt    although many Sufis are thought to have voted for the Muslim Brotherhood Freedom and Justice Party.
These sheikhs gradually gathered about themselves muridsor disciples, whom they initiated into the tarika. Gradually the murids formed orders, also known as turuq, which were loyal to the Sheikh or his successors also called sheikhs. In Egypt there are 74 Sufi orders tarikaseach headed by its own sheikh.
Overseeing them is the Supreme Council for Sufi Orders and the president of Egypt is directly in charge of Sufi affairs.
Since the early s, there has been a revival of interest in Sufism. In Egypt the term Moulid is not reserved for Muslim festivals and may be in honor of Christian, and until recently Jewish holy men.
Sufi Muslim moulids not only venerate the prophet Muhammad and his descendants such as Husseinthe second son of the fourth Caliph Ali whose moulid in Cairo can draws crowds of more than a million peoplebut founders of Sufi orders, down to dozens of lesser-known sheikhs celebrated mostly in remote rural communities.
The largest moulid in Egypt takes place in Tantathe largest city in the Nile Deltaand draws an even larger number of pilgrims than hajj in Mecca.
As many as three million Egyptians and other Arabs gather there every October to celebrate the life of Sayid Ahmad al-Badawia thirteenth-century Sufi leader. Adherence to a Sufi order has long been standard for both professors and students in the al-Azhar mosque and university system.
Although al-Azhar is not monolithic, its identity has been strongly associated with Sufism.THE DECISIVE TREATISE, DETERMINING THE. NATURE OF THE CONNECTION BETWEEN. RELIGION AND PHILOSOPHY (1) [What is the attitude of the Law to philosophy?] Thus spoke the lawyer, imam, judge, and unique scholar, Abul Walid Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Rushd: Praise be to God with all due praise, and a prayer .
ISLAM: A RELIGION OF PEACE AND TOLERANCE The thesis of my article is based on Iqbal’s statement that “Islam is essentially a religion of peace’’ He categorically rejected the objection forwarded by Western critics that Islam is a militant religion, and that it was spread on the point of sword.
The Islam Religion - In this day and age, the Islam religion expands over the majority of Northern Africa, and the Middle East. It has a strong influence in these areas, and a number of different Islam groups and denominations are in these areas.
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Islam: Contemporary figures for Islam are usually between 1 billion and billion, with 1 billion being a figure frequently given in many comparative religion texts, probably because it's such a nice, round kaja-net.com figure appears to be dated, however.
Relatively high birth rates in Muslim countries continue to make Islam a fast-growing religion. My religion is islam essay. November 24, Reflexivity in feminist research paper politics dissertation the mind body problem philosophy essay paper ballet essay introduction wayne thiebaud painting analysis essay yale college essay video herpes cure research paper theme for english b essay flute history instrument essay diphenyl.