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The author thanks the two anonymous reviewers whose comments helped improve this manuscript. Today it has been forgotten to what extent entry into the [European Economic] Community led to a reorientation of the organizational and conceptual structures of Spanish foreign policy.
The Spanish administration in general and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in particular adapted so much and so quickly to the particular requirements of Communitarian coordination that the previous period seems almost prehistoric.
As this author states, entry into the EEC was a strong incentive to modernization in the machinery of Spanish foreign policy. However, the changes introduced did not emerge from nowhere: At the same time, the inner democratization of Spanish diplomacy was seen as part of a larger process of modernization and rapprochement to Europe after forty years of dictatorship.
This Foreign Service was monopolized by a diplomatic elite forged in the dictatorship: Diario de Sesiones, Bib The Constitution clarified the institutional structure of the State and the decision-making process in foreign policy. In sharp contrast with the purely decorative Cortes under Franco, 12 effective parliamentary control by the lower house of the Cortes, the Congress of Deputies Congreso de los Diputadosand the Senate Senado over the government was established, although over time the trend of presidentialization of Spanish foreign policy undermined the effectiveness of democratic controls.
In Spain asked the EEC for an association agreement, but because of its undemocratic regime it had to settle for a Preferential Trade Agreement, signed in From to Spain —and Portugal— entered into talks and then held negotiations with the EEC to become member states.
The burden of the relations with Brussels fell mainly on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs MFAwhich over the years made partial internal reforms, postponing major changes until Spain finally belonged to the European Communities. International expansion and internal democratization within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 9After almost forty years of relative isolation under the Franco dictatorship, democratic Spain from deployed a renewed and expanded international activity.
By the end of the Franco regime, Spain did not have, or had broken off, relations with the countries of Eastern Europe, and its diplomacy created tensions with its main external supporters United States, Vatican and its nearest neighbors France, Morocco. Even though Spain had participated in the Conference on Security and Cooperation in EuropeFranco —who as head of state had only travelled to Italy to meet Mussolini and to Portugal to meet Salazar, apart from his meeting with Hitler in Hendaye France in — died in amid international condemnation.
The number of career diplomats in the Spanish Foreign Service increased from to between and This, together with EEC membership inmade management of Spanish foreign policy increasingly complex. It was a figure equivalent to the vice-minister in many European ministries of foreign affairs, so its creation facilitated communication with them and was also a suggestion of convergence with the organizational models of other European diplomacies.
As a country of emigrants, Spain had at least 2. A significant number were political exiles who had migrated from onwards, but the bulk of this diaspora consisted of workers who arrived in Latin America before and in Western Europe after that year.
Under the dictatorship, the consulates, besides giving these migrants administrative and social assistance, had also played a crucial role in the political surveillance and control of Spaniards abroad.
Viaxe pola zona escura da democracia Relatos de una vida, Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros,This required a new relationship with the mass media.
Politics and diplomacy seemed more intertwined now than under Franco. The democratic model of foreign policy also required the end of secrecy, which was the norm under the dictatorship.
Thus, after information policy became a major concern of diplomats, 32 who needed to properly convey foreign policy to the public, and to a new generation of journalists, who were often very critical of the government. There was a reciprocal influence among journalists and diplomats, which resulted in stronger democratic control of public authorities.
The transition to democracy involved no break with the Francoist State, but rather a step-by-step adaptation of its norms and institutions.
The highest positions in the ministry and embassies during the transition were in the hands of diplomats who had made careers during the dictatorship. The democratic governments did not purge diplomats and senior officials, neither at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs nor in any other branch of the administration.
In Oreja appointed new ambassadors to the USA The new mechanism would have to be bureaucratic, regulated and predictable, putting an end to the arbitrariness of the previous period, but most important, it should also guarantee, according to Oreja, democratization within the Foreign Service.
This suggests that there were enough diplomats the government could trust politically and that the diplomatic career had become diverse and liberal enough since the s.The 6th Laboratory Approaches to Romance Phonology conference was the result of the collaboration between Indiana University and El Colegio de México and was held in El Colegio de México in October 3rd-5th , in what was the first time the conference was held in Latin America.
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