May 05, We all know that the Internet is a dangerous place to do business. And we all know the basic drill for protecting our irreplaceable business assets: Precautions such as these fall under the umbrella of defensive tactics, securing your network behind a protective wall of hardware and software. Yet small armies of hackers spend all day, every day, looking for ways to break into your network, so it's no surprise when we read about systems being compromised.
Preparing and disseminating surveillance reports Discussion It may be useful to think of the simplicity of a surveillance system from two perspectives: An example of a system that is simple in design is one whose case definition is easy to apply and in which the person identifying the case will also be the one analyzing and using the information.
A more complex system might involve some of the following: Special laboratory tests to confirm the case Telephone contact or a home visit by a public health nurse to collect detailed information Multiple levels of reporting e.
Flexibility Definition A flexible surveillance system can adapt to changing information needs or operating conditions with little additional cost in time, personnel, or allocated funds.
Flexible systems can accommodate, for example, new diseases and health conditions, changes in case definitions, and variations in reporting sources. Methods Flexibility is probably best judged retrospectively, by observing how a system responded to a new demand.
For example, when acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS emerged inthe existing notifiable disease reporting system of state health departments was used to report cases, and AIDS surveillance has adapted to rapidly advancing knowledge about the disease, its diagnosis, and its risk factors.
Another example is the capacity of the gonorrhea surveillance system to accommodate special surveillance for penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonor- rhoeae. Discussion Unless efforts have been made to adapt a system to another disease, it may be difficult to assess the flexibility of that system.
In the absence of practical experience, one can look at the design and workings of a system. Generally, simpler systems will be more flexible--fewer components will need to be modified when adapting the system for use with another disease. Acceptability Definition Acceptability reflects the willingness of individuals and organizations to participate in the surveillance system.
Methods In terms of evaluating a surveillance system, acceptability refers to the willingness to use the system by: To assess acceptability, one must consider the points of interaction between the system and its participants Figure 1including persons with the condition and those reporting cases.
Quantitative indicators of acceptability include: Discussion Acceptability is a largely subjective attribute that encompasses the willingness of persons on whom the system depends to provide accurate, consistent, complete, and timely data.
Some factors influencing the acceptability of a particular system are: The public health importance of the health event Recognition by the system of the individual's contribution Responsiveness of the system to suggestions or comments Time burden relative to available time Federal and state legislative restrictions on data collection and assurance of confidentiality Federal and state legislative requirements for reporting Sensitivity Definition The sensitivity of a surveillance system can be considered on two levels.
First, at the level of case reporting, the proportion of cases of a disease or health condition detected by the surveillance system can be evaluated. Second, the system can be evaluated for its ability to detect epidemics 3.
Methods The sensitivity of a surveillance system is affected by the likelihood that: Persons with certain diseases or health conditions seek medical care; The diseases or conditions will be diagnosed, reflecting the skill of care providers and the sensitivity of diagnostic tests; and The case will be reported to the system, given the diagnosis.
These three conditions can be extended by analogy to surveillance systems that do not fit the traditional disease care-provider model. For example, the sensitivity of a telephone-based surveillance system of morbidity or risk factors is affected by: The number of people who have telephones, who are at home when the call is placed, and who agree to participate; The ability of persons to understand the questions and correctly identify their status; and The willingness of respondents to report their status.
The extent to which these questions are explored depends on the system and on the resources available for the evaluation. The measurement of sensitivity in a surveillance system requires a the validation of information collected by the system and b the collection of information external to the system to determine the frequency of the condition in a community 4.
From a practical standpoint, the primary emphasis in assessing sensitivity--assuming that most reported cases are correctly classified--is to estimate the proportion of the total number of cases in the community being detected by the system.
Discussion A surveillance system that does not have high sensitivity can still be useful in monitoring trends, as long as the sensitivity remains reasonably constant. Questions concerning sensitivity in surveillance systems most commonly arise when changes in disease occurrence are noted.
Changes in sensitivity can be precipitated by such events as heightened awareness of a disease, introduction of new diagnostic tests, and changes in the method of conducting surveillance. A search for such surveillance "artifacts" is often an initial step in outbreak investigations.
Predictive Value Positive Definition Predictive value positive PVP is the proportion of persons identified as having cases who actually do have the condition under surveillance 5.The Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has data on the effectiveness of some, but not all of its passenger aviation security countermeasures.
Specifically, TSA has data on passenger prescreening, checkpoint and checked baggage screening, and explosives detection canines. Jun 26, · You can evaluate employee job satisfaction by measuring changes in the average length of service. A measure of training levels is the percent of employees who received training each month.
Join us for a live webinar with Ryan Manni, Manager, Security Operations, Hologic, as we discuss their evaluation of cloud-based endpoint security and why they chose Cb Defense. Hologic is an innovative medical technology company focused on improving women’s health.
The crime-prone areas are more likely need the security guards as you never know when there will come the situation where you need a professional security guard to protect yourself and your business .
Before we get to that, though, we need to understand the most basic level of security that is responsible for many hacked sites – even those hosted on secure servers. We’ve chosen the best web. However, once that process is complete, you may not need the plugin anymore.
Plugins that you’re not actively using take up unnecessary space and memory on your servers. Worse than that, every plugin you have installed potentially puts you at risk for security vulnerabilities.