Democratic approaches to parenting and families Adlerian approaches to classroom management Leadership and organisational psychology From its inception, Adlerian psychology has included both professional and lay adherents. Adler felt that all people could make use of the scientific insights garnered by psychology and he welcomed everyone, from decorated academics to those with no formal education to participate in spreading the principles of Adlerian psychology. He argued that human personality could be explained teleologically: If the corrective factors were disregarded and the individual overcompensated, then an inferiority complex would occur, fostering the danger of the individual becoming egocentric, power-hungry and aggressive or worse.
In adults, however, the situation is more complicated—since in Freud's submission, the dreams of adults have been subjected to distortion, with the dream's so-called "manifest content" being a heavily disguised derivative of the "latent" dream-thoughts present in the unconscious.
As a result of this distortion and disguise, the dream's real significance is concealed: In Freud's original formulation the latent dream-thought was described as having been subject to an intra-psychic force referred to as "the censor"; in the more refined terminology of his later years, however, discussion was in terms of the super-ego and "the work of the ego 's forces of defense.
Freud's view was that dreams are compromises which ensure that sleep is not interrupted: The dream portrays Freud's colleague giving Irma an unsterile injection. Freud provides us with pages of associations to the elements in his dream, using it to demonstrate his technique of decoding the latent dream thought from the manifest content of the dream.
Freud described the actual technique of psychoanalytic dream-analysis in the following terms, suggesting that the true meaning of a dream must be "weeded out" from dream: From this material you arrive at the latent dream-thoughts, just as you arrived at the patient's hidden complexes from his associations to his symptoms and memories The true meaning of the dream, which has now replaced the manifest content, is always clearly intelligible.
Visualization — a thought is translated to visual images. Symbolism — a symbol replaces an action, person, or idea. To these might be added "secondary elaboration"—the outcome of the dreamer's natural tendency to make some sort of "sense" or "story" out of the various elements of the manifest content as recollected.
Freud, in fact, was wont to stress that it was not merely futile but actually misleading to attempt to "explain" one part of the manifest content with reference to another part as if the manifest dream somehow constituted some unified or coherent conception.
Freud considered that the experience of anxiety dreams and nightmares was the result of failures in the dream-work: Traumatic dreams where the dream merely repeats the traumatic experience were eventually admitted as exceptions to the theory. Freud famously described psychoanalytic dream-interpretation as "the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind"; he was, however, capable of expressing regret and dissatisfaction at the way his ideas on the subject were misrepresented or simply not understood: Jung[ edit ] And although not dismissing Freud's model of dream interpretation wholesale, Carl Jung believed Freud's notion of dreams as representations of unfulfilled wishes to be limited.
Jung argued that Freud's procedure of collecting associations to a dream would bring insights into the dreamer's mental complex—a person's associations to anything will reveal the mental complexes, as Jung had shown experimentally  —but not necessarily closer to the meaning of the dream.
Jung believed the psyche to be a self-regulating organism in which conscious attitudes were likely to be compensated for unconsciously within the dream by their opposites.
In the subjective approach, every person in the dream represents an aspect of the dreamer. Jung argued that the subjective approach is much more difficult for the dreamer to accept, but that in most good dream-work, the dreamer will come to recognize that the dream characters can represent an unacknowledged aspect of the dreamer.
Thus, if the dreamer is being chased by a crazed killer, the dreamer may come eventually to recognize his own homicidal impulses. Gestalt therapists extended the subjective approach, claiming that even the inanimate objects in a dream can represent aspects of the dreamer.
Jung believed that archetypes such as the animusthe animathe shadow and others manifested themselves in dreams, as dream symbols or figures.
Such figures could take the form of an old man, a young maiden or a giant spider as the case may be. Each represents an unconscious attitude that is largely hidden to the conscious mind. Although an integral part of the dreamer's psyche, these manifestations were largely autonomous and were perceived by the dreamer to be external personages.
Acquaintance with the archetypes as manifested by these symbols serve to increase one's awareness of unconscious attitudes, integrating seemingly disparate parts of the psyche and contributing to the process of holistic self-understanding he considered paramount.behold, he standeth behind our wall, he looketh forth at the windows, showing himself through the lattice.
Early life. Kohut was born on 3 May , in Vienna, Austria-Hungary, to Felix Kohut and Else Kohut (née Lampl).He was the only child of the family. Kohut's parents were assimilated Jews living in Alsergrund, or the Ninth District, and they had married two years kaja-net.com father was an aspiring concert pianist whose musical ambitions were hindered by the traumas he endured in World War I.
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The Theory Of Attachment Theory - Harris () shows that what children learn in the home may be irrelevant in the outside world.
The example given was of identical twins, if separated at birth and brought up in different households they are more likely to have similar habits, hobbies and styles rather then twins that are brought up together in the same house. Feb 28, · Freud as a Pivotal Force to Jung and Adler W.H.
Auden once wrote of Freud, "to us he is no more a person now but a whole climate of opinion" (Reppen, , p. 2). Freud's often-controversial psychoanalysis was an attempt to explain the human personality, and he theorized that the human psyche was a composite of the id, ego, .
The theories of Freud, Adler, and Jung are considered classic theories because of theirhistorical significance and comprehensiveness (Nystul, M. S., p. ).